Category Archives: Software

PIME 大易三碼

對一個大易用戶來說,好的輸入法不好找。
Windows 7 時是 Yahoo 輸入法最好用,但是 Yahoo 輸入法已經停止開發,Windows 10 上比較好一點的輸入法只有 PIME

前一陣子回答了一個 PIME 的問題 大易3碼表缺字 #520

Read more »

Grafana+Prometheus+Python_Client

Grafana+Prometheus

好久沒有研究 Monitor 平台了,以前都是用 Cacti 打造就覺得這玩意高大上了,但是最近研究完 Grafana+Prometheus 才知道為什麼這個組合會變成最近的潮流,這實在是太炫了,比 Cacti 不知道好看多少倍。

但是也因為如此,所以花了不少時間研究一下如何將自己設定的參數值,透過 Prometheus 在 Grafana 顯示出來

Read more »

python vim setting

忘了那邊找來的,不過覺得不錯用

將以下設定存到 /etc/vim/vimrc or ~/.vimrc

" configure expanding of tabs for various file types
au BufRead,BufNewFile *.py set expandtab
au BufRead,BufNewFile *.c set noexpandtab
au BufRead,BufNewFile *.h set noexpandtab
au BufRead,BufNewFile Makefile* set noexpandtab
" --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
" configure editor with tabs and nice stuff...
" --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
set expandtab " enter spaces when tab is pressed
set textwidth=120 " break lines when line length increases
set tabstop=4 " use 4 spaces to represent tab
set softtabstop=4
set shiftwidth=4 " number of spaces to use for auto indent
set autoindent " copy indent from current line when starting a new line
 " make backspaces more powerfull
set backspace=indent,eol,start
 set ruler " show line and column number
syntax on " syntax highlighting
set showcmd " show (partial) command in status line 

Office 2016 註冊後還是一直出現要求註冊(啟用)的視窗

這個是預裝 Windows 和 Office 2016 但是沒有買 Office 2016 License 的電腦才會發生.

即使 Uninstall 預裝的 Office , 再次安裝合法註冊 Office 之後, 仍然一直會出現這個視窗, 雖然可以關掉但是不影響使用

Read more »

DNS Query But Get Reply Code : Format Error

This is strange problem, when update BIND this time, suddenly, DNS query failed. I cannot find reason, I thought that should be NAT problem originally, because it cannot all other domains but Intranet domain, So, after capture packet to observe it. found root cause eventually , the DNS server replay me Format Error.

Read more »

Build SDK in Docker

這一篇是我在弄編某家 IC 設計公司的 SDK 的弄的 Docker document 時寫的文件, 懶得轉成中文了, 所以大家就將就看一下吧

最早是因為 Host OS 已經升級, 但是編 SDK 一直出問題, 所以只好弄一個環境編譯 SDK
Ubuntu 16.04 應該是目前最穩定的版本, 所以以下的文件也都是基於 Ubuntu 16.04 寫的 最後的 Docker file 可以安裝和編譯該家公司目前大多數的 SDK, 或許也適合其他家公司使用.
給各位參考一下

Why Need Docker

Some people run VM to compile SDK, but VM has one problem, every VM needs one disk, whatever virtual or physical. if have a lot of SDK versions, VM will be too heavy to run different version of SDK.
Docker is a technical to provide container, it can isolate to run another OS with the same kernel.
Docker just like chroot, can switch to another directory and run system inside the directory.
So, if have problem on compile SDK, and wants to use another OS, use Docker means we don’t need to create new VM or find new PC to install new OS. It can save time on install OS.

Install Docker

If you are using VMWare Workstation as virtual machine runs on Windows
suggest to run Ubuntu 17.10 in VM. kernel is more stable than Ubuntu 17.04.
This guide is for Ubuntu, but I think it can easy to do the same thing on
other Linux distributions.
it’s easy to install Docker with following command

 $ sudo apt install docker.io

edit /etc/group and add your account to group docker, then, re-login. replace username with your account name

docker:x:132:[username]

Create Docker Image

Before use Docker, it needs to create new image with sshd.
After create Docker image, we can use this image to run Docker containers.
First step:
create a folder, ex: in /work/docker/ubuntu

$ mkdir -p /work/docker/ubuntu

Second step:
create a file name “dockerfile”, this file will download ubuntu 16.04 official Docker image, and install/run sshd.
this dockerfile will create only one account “root”.
Following is contain of file name “dockerfile”, please save it as file “dockerfile”

FROM ubuntu:16.04
RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y openssh-server
RUN mkdir /var/run/sshd
RUN echo 'root:root' |chpasswd # echo password | passwd --stdin root
RUN sed -i 's/PermitRootLogin prohibit-password/PermitRootLogin yes/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
RUN sed -i '/pam_loginuid.so/c session optional pam_loginuid.so' /etc/pam.d/sshd
RUN echo "export VISIBLE=now" >> /etc/profile
EXPOSE 22
CMD bash /root/service.sh ; /usr/sbin/sshd -D

Third Step:
Build Docker image, ubuntu_sshd is image name, you can replace it with what you like

$ cd /work/docker/ubuntu
$ docker build -t ubuntu_sshd ./

Next step, check the image list with Docker images command

$ docker images
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
ubuntu_sshd latest a35b72393f98 7 days ago 216 MB
centos7_sshd latest 5863726c0ae2 8 days ago 282 MB
centos centos6 5dedbd63518e 8 weeks ago 194 MB

if you don’t want this image, use docker rmi to remove it.

$ docker rmi 5dedbd63518e
Untagged: centos:centos6
Untagged: centos@sha256:27129d34f09970d0a348e789b7dba7d1bf39bc346eb5931a9c4dd3be658dfa75
Deleted: sha256:5dedbd63518eeb45b6c9740d9ea6dee99a4a4c3d0202eac25ebc5fd43809f0a0
Deleted: sha256:80716a2ba414a02bb63de844acff6578a25b8583b01cf0a4c2653da50a31e305

At least, it might have another requirement about to use other OS like centos.
Here is centos dockerfile, you can change number 7 to get other centos version

FROM centos:centos7
RUN yum install -y which openssh-clients openssh-server
RUN ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
RUN ssh-keygen -t dsa -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
RUN echo 'root:root' |chpasswd # echo password | passwd --stdin root
RUN sed -i '/pam_loginuid.so/c session optional pam_loginuid.so' /etc/pam.d/sshd
EXPOSE 22
CMD bash /root/service.sh ; /usr/sbin/sshd -D

Run Docker Container

Run docker container is very easy, following command is to run docker container,
-v /work:/work means it can share host /work with /work inside docker.
-P means will create a port mapping to port 22 inside docker
–privileged=true can allow mount loop back devices.

$ docker run --privileged=true -d --name sdk620 -v /work:/work -P ubuntu_sshd

Aftet this command, it will see docker image is running

$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS
PORTS NAMES
693fdc5ff6c4 ubuntu_sshd "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..." 1 hours ago Up 1 hours
0.0.0.0:32768->22/tcp sdk620

it can also use outside Docker image resource, like rastasheep.
rastasheep provides a ubuntu sshd environment, so, that means it doesn’t need to create Docker image ourselves, if just need a sshd environment.
Visit this web for more information
https://hub.docker.com/r/rastasheep/ubuntu-sshd/

run following command to create a docker container from rastasheep, it will download some files from internet.

$ docker run -d --name test -v /work:/work -P rastasheep/ubuntu-sshd:16.04
16.04: Pulling from rastasheep/ubuntu-sshd
ae79f2514705: Already exists
[ignore download message]
$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED
STATUS PORTS NAMES
dfbfed255ff4 rastasheep/ubuntu-sshd:16.04 "/usr/sbin/sshd -D" 16 seconds ago
Up 14 seconds 0.0.0.0:32771->22/tcp test

sometimes, VM crash or host reboot, docker containers are gone,
it can use docker ps -a to find it, ex:

$ docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED
STATUS PORTS NAMES
693fdc5ff6c4 ubuntu_sshd "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..." 19 hours ago
Exited (137) 11 hours ago sdk620
now we can get docker id and run it again
$ docker start 693fdc5ff6c4
Check current status, it can see docker containers running again,
but mapping port maybe different
$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED
STATUS PORTS NAMES
7000c5d55029 ubuntu_sshd "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..." 11 hours ago Up 11
hours 0.0.0.0:32768->22/tcp sdk510-2
693fdc5ff6c4 ubuntu_sshd "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..." 19 hours ago Up 11
seconds 0.0.0.0:32769->22/tcp sdk620

Everytime restart docker image, the binding port will be re-assigned,
if needs to fix the binding port, it can use -p parameter, for example, following command will assign localhost port 40001 to port 22. please notice, only can assign it before create it.

$ docker run -d --privileged=true --name sdk620-2 -v /work:/work -p 40001:22 -P ubuntu_sshd

SSH into Docker Container

Now, it has running docker container, next step is to use ssh to login docker container.

if doesn’t have ssh key, please generate one. default value is good for docker. Don’t need higher security in this circumstance

$ ssh-keygen

in previous docker ps information, we can know sdk620’s open port is 32769.

$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED
STATUS PORTS NAMES
693fdc5ff6c4 ubuntu_sshd "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..." 19 hours ago Up 11
seconds 0.0.0.0:32769->22/tcp sdk620

$ ssh-copy-id -p 32769 root@localhost
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
Number of key(s) added: 1

Now try logging into the machine, with: “ssh -p ‘32769’ ‘root@localhost'” and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.

Now, it can ssh to Docker container

$ ssh -p 32769 root@localhost
Welcome to Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.13.0-16-generic x86_64)

* Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com
* Management: https://landscape.canonical.com
* Support: https://ubuntu.com/advantage
Last login: Wed Nov 8 08:14:13 2017 from 172.17.0.1
root@693fdc5ff6c4:~#

Please understand, this Docker image only contain basic function, even doesn’t have some basic commands like sudo or other commands. Here is some example commands to install basic packages.

echo "export LC_ALL=C" | tee ~/.bashrc
apt update
apt -y upgrade
apt -y install vim tmux lftp net-tools ethtool bc sudo wget

If you prepare to install SDK, it needs to install build environment

First, modify /etc/apt/source.list , replace “# deb-src” with “deb-src” remove # and include all source packages.

$ apt update

Install build kernel packages

$ apt-get build-dep linux-image-lowlatency-lts-xenial

Install build other packages’s packages

$ apt -y install vim tmux lftp net-tools ethtool bc sudo wget
$ apt-get -y build-dep linux-image-lowlatency-lts-xenial
$ apt install -y docbook-utils libncurses5-dev help2man texinfo m4 flex
$ apt install -y bison autoconf libltdl-dev libltdl7 zlib1g-dev uuid-dev
$ apt install -y pkg-config alien libglib2.0-dev pigz liblz4-tool
$ apt install -y libssl-dev pkg-config aptitude m4 flex bison texinfo
$ aptitude install -y liblz4-tool pandoc texlive-xetex device-tree-compiler

Next Step, it can use alien to install SDK rpm packages

$ alien -i --script *.rpm

Create new Docker Image for build SDK

combind all information above,we can create a new image which can provide an Docker image to compile SDK
First, create a ubuntu 16.04 dockerfile like following

FROM ubuntu:16.04
RUN sed -i -- 's/# deb-src/deb-src/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
# following line is local proxy example configuration file.
# RUN echo "Acquire::http::Proxy \"http://192.168.1.254:3142\";" >> /etc/apt/apt.conf
RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y openssh-server apt-utils
RUN mkdir -p /var/run/sshd
RUN apt -y install vim tmux lftp net-tools ethtool bc sudo wget
RUN apt-get -y build-dep linux-image-lowlatency-lts-xenial
RUN apt install -y docbook-utils libncurses5-dev help2man texinfo m4 flex
RUN apt install -y bison autoconf libltdl-dev libltdl7 zlib1g-dev uuid-dev
RUN apt install -y pkg-config alien libglib2.0-dev pigz liblz4-tool
RUN apt install -y libssl-dev pkg-config aptitude m4 flex bison texinfo
RUN apt install language-pack-en
RUN aptitude install -y liblz4-tool pandoc texlive-xetex device-tree-compiler
RUN apt -y upgrade
RUN apt autoclean
#RUN ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
#RUN ssh-keygen -t dsa -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
RUN echo 'root:root' |chpasswd # echo password | passwd --stdin root
RUN sed -i 's/PermitRootLogin prohibit-password/PermitRootLogin yes/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
RUN sed -i '/pam_loginuid.so/c session optional pam_loginuid.so' /etc/pam.d/sshd
RUN echo "export VISIBLE=now" >> /etc/profile
EXPOSE 22
CMD bash /root/service.sh ; /usr/sbin/sshd -D

If used Centos, here has another example

FROM centos:centos7
RUN yum install -y which openssh-clients openssh-server #-y表示交互都输入yes
RUN ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
RUN ssh-keygen -t dsa -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
RUN echo 'root:root' |chpasswd # echo password | passwd --stdin root
RUN sed -i '/pam_loginuid.so/c session optional pam_loginuid.so' /etc/pam.d/sshd
RUN yum install -y bc sudo zlib-devel uuid-devel yum libuuid-devel.i686 uuid-devel.i686
RUN yum install -y vim perl-Env patch ncurses ncurses-devel glibc.i686
RUN yum install -y device-mapper-devel dtc gdisk glib2-devel libfdt
RUN yum install -y libfdt-devel libpcap libpcap-devel openssl openssl-devel
RUN yum install -y pciutils pciutils-devel texinfo-tex pigz libuuid-devel
RUN yum groupinstall -y 'Development Tools'
EXPOSE 22
CMD bash /root/service.sh ; /usr/sbin/sshd -D

Build a Docker image

$ docker build -t ubuntu1604_sdk ./

It will take ten minutes or more depend on network speed. After finish build image, it can use following command to check current status.

$ docker image ls
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
ubuntu1604_sdk latest 9f02c2ad68c4 36 minutes ago 2.14 GB

Then, we can run new Docker container with this image.

$ docker run -d --privileged=true --name sdk620-2 -v /work:/work -p 40001:22 -P ubuntu1604_sdk

Remove a running Docker container

Ff project closed or don’t really need Docker container, it can be removed. use docker ps to find which one container we don’t need.

$ docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED
STATUS PORTS NAMES
7000c5d55029 ubuntu_sshd "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..." 11 hours ago Up 11
hours 0.0.0.0:32768->22/tcp sdk510-2
693fdc5ff6c4 ubuntu_sshd "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..." 20 hours ago Up 25
minutes 0.0.0.0:32769->22/tcp sdk620
51b5fff37d74 centos/centos7 "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..." 37 hours ago Up 2
seconds 0.0.0.0:32770->22/tcp sdk510

Sdk510 with centos7 will fail to compile, I don’t need it.
run following command to stop it.

$ docker stop 51b5fff37d74

run following command to remove it.

$ docker rm 51b5fff37d74

sdk510 Docker container won’t occupy disk anymore. but please use it carefully,
once you remove it, you cannot recall it back.

SSH fail

After reboot, Docker listen port will change, when ssh to docker, sometimes, it will show below error message

ERROR: @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
ERROR: @ WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! @
ERROR: @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
ERROR: IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!
ERROR: Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
ERROR: It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
ERROR: The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is
ERROR: SHA256:le87dSbnHw6hmDCjqNF38wGgI3W95nvLLoDEgtfnNyY.
ERROR: Please contact your system administrator.
ERROR: Add correct host key in /home/username/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
ERROR: Offending RSA key in /home/username/.ssh/known_hosts:15
ERROR: remove with:
ERROR: ssh-keygen -f “/home/username/.ssh/known_hosts” -R “[localhost]:32769”
ERROR: RSA host key for [localhost]:32769 has changed and you have requested strict checking.
ERROR: Host key verification failed.
Just run following command to remove it.

$ ssh-keygen -f "/home/username/.ssh/known_hosts" -R "[localhost]:32769"

Auto Start Docker Container When reboot

Enable docker by default

systemctl enable docker

Change docker status to unless-stopped (ref. Start containers automatically)

docker update --restart=unless-stopped sdk620

Ubuntu 18.04

if rootfs is 18.04, there are some minor change between docker file.
1) Cannot use change root password to login system. reason unknown.
2) kernel package name is different
3) need to configure time-zone.
but it can use different way to login system : ssh login with key. it needs minor change to dockerfile.
if you don’t have ~/.ssh/ida_rsa and ~/.ssh/ida_rsa.pub file, it can generate ssh key with command and copy file to your docker folder.

$ ssh-keygen
$ cp ~/.ssh/ida_rsa.pub [path to ubuntu 18.04 docker folder]

following is docker 18.04 file , if you are not in Taiwan, please also change zoneinfo to your timezone accordingly.

FROM ubuntu:18.04

RUN sed -i -- 's/# deb-src/deb-src/g' /etc/apt/sources.list

# RUN echo "Acquire::http::Proxy \"http://192.168.1.254:3142\";" >> /etc/apt/apt.conf

RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y openssh-server apt-utils
RUN mkdir -p /var/run/sshd

RUN export DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive
RUN apt-get install -y tzdata
RUN ln -fs /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Taiwan /etc/localtime
RUN dpkg-reconfigure --frontend noninteractive tzdata

RUN apt -y install vim tmux lftp net-tools ethtool bc sudo wget
RUN apt-get -y build-dep linux-image-generic
RUN apt install -y docbook-utils libncurses5-dev help2man texinfo m4 flex
RUN apt install -y bison autoconf libltdl-dev libltdl7 zlib1g-dev uuid-dev
RUN apt install -y pkg-config alien libglib2.0-dev pigz liblz4-tool
RUN apt install -y libssl-dev pkg-config aptitude m4 flex bison texinfo
RUN aptitude install -y liblz4-tool pandoc texlive-xetex device-tree-compiler

# it needs gmake to compile u-boot
RUN sudo ln -s /usr/bin/make /usr/bin/gmake

RUN apt -y upgrade
RUN apt autoclean

#RUN ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
#RUN ssh-keygen -t dsa -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key

RUN echo 'root:root' |chpasswd # echo password | passwd --stdin root

RUN sed -i 's/#PermitRootLogin prohibit-password/PermitRootLogin yes/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config

RUN sed -i '/pam_loginuid.so/c session    optional     pam_loginuid.so'  /etc/pam.d/sshd

RUN echo "export VISIBLE=now" >> /etc/profile
RUN sed -i "s/UsePAM yes/UsePAM no/" /etc/ssh/sshd_config
# ADD id_rsa.pub /root/.ssh/authorized_keys

EXPOSE 22
CMD bash /root/service.sh ; /usr/sbin/sshd -D

Ubuntu 16.04 error: undefined reference to `create_module’

Ubuntu 16.04 error: undefined reference to `create_module’

Building module-init-tools-3.2 in Ubuntu16.04 failed:
lsmod.o: In function `try_old_version':
./module-init-tools-3.2/backwards_compat.c:56: undefined reference to `create_module'

這一篇Ubuntu 16.04 error: undefined reference to `create_module’對我沒有用, 但是解法是對的, 這時就要用粗暴的方式, 直接改 backwards_compat.c
加上

#define CONFIG_NO_BACKWARDS_COMPAT

暫時解決問題

關掉 Windows 10 升級通知

最近 Windows 10 升級通知又跑出來了.

關掉最好的方案
1) 用系統管理員身份開啟 cmd
2) 執行以下 command

$ reg add HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Gwx /t REG_DWORD /v DisableGwx /d 1

3) 重開機就看不到了

Ref.
How to manage Windows 10 notification and upgrade options

[VMWARE] There are no un-bridged host network adapters 的錯誤

Windows 10 Upgrade 之後, Vmware 出現 There are no un-bridged host network adapters 的錯誤

解決方法很簡單

打開 VMWare 內的 Virtual Network Editor (Edit -> Virtual Network Editor), 然後按下 “Restore Defaults”.
這樣就可以解決了.

ref.
RESOLVING VMWARE ERROR “THERE ARE NO UN-BRIDGED HOST NETWORK ADAPTERS” AFTER WINDOWS 10 UPGRADE
Bridging issues in Windows 10 and WS11

自幹 dyndns

之前好像免費的 dyndns 都收的差不多了, 好像很久沒有人提了.
今天心情還不錯, 就來架設自己的 dyndns.
主要可以參考這二篇

[分享] 用 BIND 架設 DDNS Server 提供 DDNS 服務
動態 DNS 設定技巧
Read more »